Growing objections within Member States to U.S. trade policy and various aspects of the USMCA have had an impact on the signing and ratification process. Mexico said it would not sign the USMCA if tariffs on steel and aluminum were maintained.  Based on the results of the November 6, 2018 U.S. election, it has been speculated that the greater power of Democrats in the House of Representatives could jeopardize the passage of the USMCA agreement.   Bill Pascrell, a senior Democrat, argued for changes to the USMCA to pass Congress.  Republicans have opposed the USMCA provisions that impose labour rights on LGBTQ and pregnant workers.  Forty Republicans in Congress have asked Mr. Trump not to sign an agreement that includes “the unprecedented integration of sexual orientation and the language of gender identity.” As a result, Trump ultimately signed a revised version that required each nation only to “policies it deems appropriate to protect workers from discrimination in the workplace” and said the United States would not be required to introduce additional non-discrimination laws.  The Canadian government expressed concern about the changes that have occurred under the USMCA agreement.  The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), signed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, Mexican President Carlos Salinas and U.S. President George H.W.
Bush, came into force on January 1, 1994. NAFTA has created economic growth and a rising standard of living for the people of the three member countries. By strengthening trade and investment rules and procedures across the continent, Nafta has proven to be a solid foundation for building Canada`s prosperity. NAFTA replaced Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA). Negotiations on CUFTA began in 1986 and the agreement entered into force on 1 January 1989. The two nations agreed on a landmark agreement that put Canada and the United States at the forefront of trade liberalization. For more information, visit the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement information page. For the first time, a trade agreement requires the United States to reach an agreement with Mexico and Canada to increase the de minimis value of delivery to facilitate the strengthening of cross-border trade. For the first time in decades, Canada will increase its de minimis level from $20 to $40 for taxes. Canada will also offer duty-free shipments of up to 150 $US.
Mexico will continue to provide $50 of tax-exempt de minimis and will also provide duty-free shipments up to the equivalent of $117. Shipping rates to this level would be achieved with minimum formal entry procedures, which would allow more businesses, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises, to be part of cross-border trade. The USMCA will have an impact on the way Member States negotiate future free trade agreements. Section 32.10 requires USMCA countries to notify USMCA members three months in advance if they plan to enter into free trade negotiations with non-market economies. Article 32.10 authorizes USMCA countries to review new free trade agreements. It is generally speculated that Article 32.10 targets China.  In fact, a senior White House official said of the USMCA agreement: “We were very concerned about China`s efforts to undermine the U.S. position by reaching agreements with others.”  Increasing the level of de minimis with major trading partners such as Mexico and Canada is an important outcome for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States. These SMEs often cannot afford to pay tariffs and taxes and bear the increase in compliance costs, which, due to their low trading volume, are due to lower-value emissions due to their low level of de-administration.